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TitlePathways and Consequences of the Introduction of Non-indigenous Insects and Arachnids in the United States
AbstractInsects and arachnids are the largest group of organisms on the planet Earth; the estimated diversity is 10-30 million species. These small and highly mobile arthropods are easily dispersed, and in addition to their innate behavior, insects and arachnids continue to invade new habitats and territories through anthropogenic routes. This process is accelerated by expanding human enterprise and changes accompanying rapid increase in global demography, urbanization, and economic development. Whereas there is no comprehensive assessment of pathways and consequences of the introduction of non-indigenous species in the United States, the present project by the U. S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment is a timely, significant undertaking for developing broad national policies and strategies against immigrant and non-indigenous organisms for the next century. This report represents a modest effort to bring together the knowledge of non-indigenous insects and arachnids while operating under a severe time and budgetary constraints; we could not maximally utilize the data at hand. This report, NANIAD, is not an adequate presentation of the status and problems of immigrant and non-indigenous insects and arachnids. The objectives of this report are: 1) to determine the current status of non-indigenous species in the United States; 2) to identify current major pathways of species introductions; 3) to review major agents and policies that have historically contributed to the current U. S. situation with non-indigenous species; 4) to determine the consequences of introductions using three case studies; and 5) to review and summarize gaps in existing knowledge and to assess and evaluate the magnitude and consequences of current problems with non-indigenous species.
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Kim, K. C.
Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences

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